In myths and legends of different countries and peoples, the apple has versatile symbolic meaning. In the Christian tradition, the history of mankind begins with an apple tree - after all, according to biblical legend, it was that paradise Tree of the Knowledge of good and evil, the fruits of which our ancestors tasted of their misfortune, yielding to the temptation of the crafty Serpent. For which they were expelled from Paradise: Adam - in order to earn his bread by sweat of his face, Eve - in pain to give birth to his children.Varieties of apple trees.
Myths and legends about the apple
But the apple, as a mythical fruit, is known not only in Christianity. We know the "apple of discord" in the Greek legend about Paris and the golden "apples of the Hesperides" from the exploits of Hercules.
At the wedding of Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis, the goddess of contention Eris, in revenge for not inviting her, threw an apple with the inscription "The Most Beautiful" among the guests. The goddess Hera, Aphrodite and Athena entered into an argument for him. The Trojan prince Paris was elected a judge in this dispute. Paris handed the apple to Aphrodite, who promised to help him get the Spartan princess Helen. Having kidnapped Elena, Paris took her to Troy, which served as the occasion for the Trojan War.
According to the ancient Greek myth of Heracles, the most difficult feat in the service of Eurystheus was the last, twelfth feat: he had to find at the edge of the earth a golden tree guarded by the voiced Hesperides with a hundred-headed dragon who never slept, and get three golden apples.
One of the greatest scientific discoveries of modern times, according to legend, is also associated with the apple. It is believed that Newton came to the law of gravity, paying attention to an apple that fell from a branch, and for the first time thinking about why, in fact, objects fall down.
Myths and legends about apples are among the Slavs. Russians, like some other nations, have myths about rejuvenating apples. According to legend, these fabulous fruits were often accompanied by living water. For distant lands, in the kingdom of the fifties there is a garden with rejuvenating apples and a well with living water. If you eat this apple to the old man - he will be younger, and the blind man will wash his eyes with water from the well - he will see ...
In Russia, girls were guessing on apples about future love. And among the people there is a legend that apples have a special power of fulfilling wishes on the feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord, celebrated on August 19. The people call it the Apple Savior, because it was on this day in Russia that it was customary to pluck and consecrate apples and other fruits of the new crop.
Apple tree description
Apple tree (lat. Málus) - a genus of deciduous trees and shrubs of the Pink family with spherical sweet or sour-sweet fruits.
The genus has 36 species. The most common are: domestic or cultivated apple (Malus domestica), which includes the majority of varieties cultivated in the world, sapwood, Chinese (Malus prunifolia), and low apple (Malus pumila).
Many species of apple trees are grown as ornamental plants in gardens and parks, used in field protection afforestation. All species are good honey carriers. The wood of the apple tree is dense, strong, easy to cut and well polished; Suitable for turning and joinery, small crafts.Apples
In central Russia, an apple tree can be planted in spring in early May or in autumn in September. For a successful landing, it is important to consider a few simple recommendations. The size of the planting pit should be sufficient to fit the roots of the seedling freely. When planting, the soil is carefully sprinkled, covering the roots, to ground level. In order not to burn the roots, you do not need to sprinkle them with fertilizers. It is important that the root neck of the seedling is 4-5 cm above the ground. When adding soil, from time to time carefully compact the soil in the pit with your hands to ensure that it is in good contact with the roots.
After planting, the seedling is watered at the rate of 3-4 buckets of water under the apple tree. Saplings grafted onto the stocks of M9, M26 and M27 must be grown tied to a stake throughout the life of the tree. The stakes should be strong, preferably oak, with a diameter of about 5 cm and a height of up to 1.8 m. The stake is driven into the landing pit so that about 60 cm of its length remains above the ground and so that the gap between the stake and the seedling trunk is about 15 cm. Sapling they are tied to the stake with soft twine at intervals of 30 cm. Do not use wire or other materials that can damage the tree bark.
In the first two years, it is necessary to periodically check that the twine is not tightly stretched around the trunk and does not cut into the bark as it thickens. More vigorous varieties require attachment to stakes in the first two years after planting. Then the stakes can be removed.
How to care for apple trees
With the exception of pruning, caring for an apple tree does not require much labor and time. The main attention should be paid to thinning ovaries and fruits. If this is not done, then the fruits will grow underdeveloped, green, with low taste. In addition, overloading the tree with fruits can lead to periodic fruiting, when next year it will rest after a large harvest. As soon as the ovaries are formed or the fruits look well formed, remove the central fruit from each bunch of fruits (usually there are five in one bunch).
The central fruit is often lower in quality and has an irregular shape. Also remove all fruitlets with flaws or irregular shapes. If the apple tree is too overloaded, thin out each bunch, leaving one or two fruit in it. The distance between the bunches should be at least 10 cm. Cordons and trees on the M9 rootstock need minimal thinning. If, despite thinning, the load on the tree remains large, there is a risk of breakage under the weight of the apples pouring. Watch the situation and, if necessary, thinn out again, or strengthen the branches with props.Apple tree (lat. Málus).
This widespread distribution of this tree is partly due to the huge variety of varieties. For almost any climate zone and for any type of soil, apple varieties have been bred that will feel great and bear fruit abundantly.
Breeders tirelessly work on creating new varieties. It is believed that the life expectancy of an apple variety is 300 years. But there are long-lived varieties, for example, the Aport variety is more than 900 years old, it was known in Kievan Rus, the white Calvil variety has been cultivated since ancient Rome, more than 2000 years.
All varieties can be divided by ripening: summer ripen in August, the shelf life of the fruit is very small - no more than 3-7 days, autumn ripening occurs in early September, shelf life is 1.5-3 weeks, winter varieties ripen in late September, fruits can be stored long enough for several months.
Experienced gardeners are able to pick apple varieties so that they are provided with apples all year long.
Novice gardeners should be aware that there are concepts of removable fruit maturity and consumer maturity. Removable maturity is the level of development of the fetus, characterized by the full formation of the fetus, the ability to remove the fruit from the tree and put it away for storage.
Consumer maturity occurs when the fruits acquire the color, taste, aroma, typical for this variety.
In summer varieties, the two stages of maturity coincide. We can eat these fruits right away, but they cannot be stored. And the fruits of winter varieties - on the contrary, are stored for a very long time, but at the time of removal from the tree it is impossible to eat them. Inherent in their taste and aroma, these fruits acquire in the process of prolonged maturation.
Also, varieties are divided into early, medium, late, depending on which year of life the trees begin to bear fruit. In early infants, this is the 3-5th year of life, in moderate infants it is the 6-8th year, for late infertility it is the 9-14th year of life.
"Antonovka" - this name combines several varieties: Antonovka dessert, Tula, Krasnobochka, Aportovaya, Krupnaya, and others. These are autumn and winter varieties, fruits can be stored for up to 2-3 months. Antonovka gold - summer grade. Fruit weight - 120-150 g, the shape is flat-round or oval-conical. Characterized by a strong aroma; greenish yellow, with juicy flesh, good taste. Antonovka has high winter hardiness and productivity.
Aport - an old variety. For the Moscow Region winter varieties Aport red, Aport Pushkinsky are varied. Trees begin to bear fruit in the 5-6th year of life. Fruits weighing more than 125 grams, conical shape, good taste. Winter hardiness is good.
"Grandma's" - late winter grade. This is an old variety of folk selection. The fruit is medium sized with a very good taste. It is characterized by very good winter hardiness.
"White filling" - summer variety, you can remove apples at the end of July. If you delay the collection, the fruits quickly lose their taste. The fruits are medium sized, very good in taste. Good winter hardiness, but can be affected by scab.
"Bessemyanka" - variety of selection of I.V. Michurin. This is an autumn variety, the fruits are stored for about three months. Fruits are medium sized, flattened-rounded, yellow-green in color, with a bright red blush. The flesh is sweet and sour. Trees of this variety begin to bear fruit in the fifth or seventh year. Winter-hardy trees, have a high resistance to scab.
"Athlete" - winter grade. The fruits are large, the shape is flattened-rounded. The fruits have a pleasant sweet and sour taste. The fruits are stored for a long time, up to nine months. Fruiting begins at 6-7 years. This variety has an average winter hardiness, high resistance to scab.
Borovinka - An old Russian variety of folk selection, known since the end of the 18th century. In Russia, this variety was valued lower than, for example, Antonovka. Autumn variety, medium-sized fruits, light green or yellow color. The pulp is juicy, sweet and sour taste. Apple trees of this variety enter fruiting for 5-6 years, have high winter hardiness.
"Vatutin" - winter grade. The fruits are large, sweet with a slight acidity. It comes into bearing for 5-6 years. Fruits can be stored until April. Winter hardiness is not very high.
"Korean" - Autumn dessert variety bred at the Research Institute of Fruit Growing named after Michurin in 1935. Apple trees of this variety are frost-resistant, resistant to scab. Fruits are large, flat-rounded, yellow in color with dark red stripes. The pulp is juicy, sour-sweet. Apples can be stored for about two months.
Grushovka - An old variety of folk selection. Summer variety, small fruits with juicy fragrant flesh of sweet and sour taste. The fruits have a yellowish color with a slight blush. Apple trees of this variety are winter-resistant, but have poor resistance to scab.
Candy " - summer grade. Small fruits ripen in August, have a juicy, very sweet pulp, a greenish-yellow color with red touches. Winter hardiness is good.
"Cinnamon new" - this variety is characterized by large fruits, weighing 130-160 g. The shape of the fruit is round-conical, the color is greenish-yellow with red blurry stripes. The pulp is tender, juicy, sour-sweet taste, aromatic. Autumn variety, fruits can be consumed until January. Beginning of fruiting at 6-7 years. This variety has good winter hardiness, high resistance to scab.
Lobo - Canadian winter variety. The fruits are large, yellowish-green with a raspberry blush. The flesh of the fruit is good, sweet and sour taste. Apple trees of this variety have average winter hardiness and are poorly resistant to scab and powdery mildew.
Cinnamon Striped - early autumn variety of folk selection. Fruits of medium size, differ in a very flattened repetitive shape. The flesh of the fruit is tender, sour-sweet, with the scent of cinnamon. Fruits can be stored for two to three months. This variety has the greatest winter hardiness among the varieties of central Russia. The variety is medium resistant to scab. Among the shortcomings of the variety, breeders note the late entry into the fruiting season and easily split wood.
Mantet - Canadian early variety. A tree of medium winter hardiness, resistant to scab. Fruits of medium size. Coloring greenish-yellow, with a bright red, striped blush. The pulp of the fruit is very juicy, with a strong aroma, sour-sweet taste. The term for consuming fruits is one month.Apple trees.
"Lungwort" - summer grade. The fruits are medium-sized, but of a very good honey-sweet taste. Fruits are yellow-green with red stripes, flat-round. The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to scab.
Mekintosh - winter variety, identified in Canada in 1796. The fruits are quite large, the color is whitish yellow with dark purple stripes. The pulp is juicy, excellent sweet and sour taste with a candy spice. Fruits can be stored until the end of February. Trees of medium early maturity begin to bear fruit at the age of 6-7 years. Winter hardiness is medium, scab resistance is weak.
"Melba" - late summer grade. Fruits weighing 130-150 g, rounded conical shape. The color is light green with a red striped blush. The taste is very good, sweet and sour. Shelf life 2 months. Winter hardiness.
Moscow Winter - winter variety, bred at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov S. I. Isaev in 1963. The fruits are large, greenish-yellow in color, the pulp is of good taste with a light aroma. Apples can be stored until April. The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness, scab resistance.
"October" - winter grade. Fruits of medium size are rounded conical, yellow, with dark red stripes. The taste of the fruit is good, sour-sweet. The tree begins to bear fruit in 4-5 years. Winter hardiness is satisfactory.
"People" - late summer grade. Fruits are roundish, golden yellow in color, of medium size. The taste of the fruit is pleasant, sour-sweet, with a light aroma. The apple tree begins fruiting for 4-5 years. It has good winter hardiness.
Moscow later - late winter variety, also bred at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov S.I. Isaev in 1961. Large fruits of golden yellow color, have a good sweet and sour taste. Fruits can be stored until the next harvest. The variety has good winter hardiness.
"Memory of Michurin" - late winter variety. Fruits of medium size, bulbous shape. The skin color is greenish-yellow or golden with a bright red integument. Apples have very good taste, are stored until January, but can be affected by heart rot. Trees have low winter hardiness, good scab resistance.
Papier - A common summer variety, similar to White Bulk. Medium greenish-yellow fruits have a very good wine-sweet taste. The fruits are stored for about two weeks. Winter hardiness and scab resistance are average.
"Student" - late winter variety bred at Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov in 1951. The fruits are large, greenish with raspberry blush, have a very good sweet and sour taste. Fruiting begins in the fifth year. The tree is characterized by high winter hardiness, scab resistance.
"Saffron Pepin" - One of the most widespread winter varieties of breeding I.V. Michurin in the territory of the Russian Federation. Medium-sized fruits of greenish-yellow color with a dark red blush have a good wine-sweet taste with a spicy delicate aroma. Apples can be stored until February - March. Apple trees of this variety begin to bear fruit in the fifth or seventh year. In severe winter, the tree may freeze, but is well restored.
Spartan - winter early variety of Canadian origin. Fruits of medium size, purple-red, can be stored until April. The fruits have a good, sweet taste. As the shortcomings of the variety, breeders note a rather low winter hardiness of the tree, the fading of the fruits with the age of the tree.
Wellsie - winter variety of American origin. Fruits are small, repetitive, golden hue with dark red stripes. The pulp of fruits is of a good sweet and sour taste, has a delicate aroma, but the taste of the fruit depends on weather conditions and the condition of the tree.The variety is medium resistant, resistance to scab is high.
Cellini - winter early variety, fruiting begins in the 3rd year. The fruits are large, can be stored until the end of January. Winter hardiness is satisfactory, the variety is resistant to scab. The pulp is of good wine-sweet taste, aromatic.
"Sharopay" - An old winter Russian variety. The fruits are large, but of a mediocre sour taste. This variety has a very high winter hardiness. Therefore, it is widely used as a stubbo or skeleton for weakly winter-hardy varieties.