In order to successfully grow grapes, the gardener must know the basic requirements of this plant for living conditions and, in accordance with this, determine a place for planting on its site, select suitable varieties and arrange proper care for the bushes. Let's try to formulate these requirements briefly.
Grapes love warmth. The buds begin to bloom at 10-12 °. The shoots grow most rapidly at a temperature of 25-30 °. During flowering, a favorable temperature is 22-25 °. The optimum temperature for ripening grapes is 25-30 °. When the temperature drops to 15-16 °, the berries ripen slowly, the accumulation of sugars decreases or stops. A temperature above 40 ° with a lack of moisture inhibits growth and can cause burns to leaves and berries. Damaged by burns, the leaves dry and fall, and the berries turn brown, wrinkle and dry.Grapes (Grapes)
Not only high, but also low temperatures have a negative effect on grape bushes. So, early autumn frosts to minus 4-6 ° lead to damage and death of the central buds of wintering eyes. Winter frosts of 24-25 ° can harm most varieties that are not sheltered for the winter (with the exception of very frost and winter hardy varieties, these are mainly hybrids with Amur or American - isabella - "blood"). With a decrease in soil temperature in the root layer to minus 5-7 °, the roots freeze. The swollen buds of grapes in spring with frost damage at minus 3-4 °, young green shoots and leaves at minus 1 °, inflorescences at minus 0.5 °.
In areas where spring frosts are frequent, I advise gardeners not to rush to dry the garter of the bush on the trellis, so that during the freeze you can cover the bushes, and after freezing, open and try to carefully tie the vines with buds that have already opened. In areas where late spring frosts are frequent, you do not need to rush with a green debris, here I recommend giving preference to varieties in which, when the shoots from the main buds are damaged, the fruiting takes place on replacing buds (Baklanovsky, Muscat Delight, Galbena nou, Victoria, Timur, Elf, Kishmish Zaporizhzhya, Crystal, isabella varieties, etc.).
In the description of varieties, there is often such a thing as the sum of active temperatures (CAT). What it is? In viticulture, an average daily temperature of 10 ° is called active, because this is the limit temperature at which growth processes are already visible in a grape plant. Therefore, CAT is the sum of all average daily air temperatures from 10 ° and above for the period from the beginning of the establishment of such temperature to the ripening of the berries of the variety. Thus, CAT is nothing more than the sum of the active temperatures required by a particular variety in order for the crop to fully mature. CAT is considered for each locality, information about this usually happens in the climatic directories of the region.Grapes (Grapes)
Grapes are very fond of light. With a lack of light, the normal operation of the leaves is disturbed, fruit buds are not laid, productivity is sharply reduced, and the bush's resistance to disease is worsened. Given this, do not plant grape bushes between fruit trees, it is better to devote areas under the vineyard that are well lit by sunlight throughout the day, and use an arched and wall culture. The best lighting conditions for the bush are achieved with appropriate planting density, placing bushes on the trellis, forming, timely and accurate gartering of shoots, breaking off excess shoots, pinching and other agricultural practices. Vine bushes should be placed as follows: from trees should be at least 6-7 m, to shrubs - at least 2-3 m, to the walls of houses - 1-1.5 m. To plant a veranda or balcony, it is enough to plant 1-2 bushes of tall plants varieties and lead them with a multi-sleeve fan formation, then they will green the yard and give a high yield of grapes.
Grapes are a relatively drought tolerant plant. Of course, higher and higher-quality crops yield grapes in conditions of optimal water supply. The need of the grape bush for moisture in different periods of development is not the same. Most of all, he needs watering during the period of active growth of green shoots and after flowering, when enhanced growth of berries begins. Water, however, can go not only for the benefit of grapes, but also to the detriment, especially when used thoughtlessly and untimely. If you water the grapes at the wrong time and in the wrong amount as he needs, this will lead to a decrease in bush growth and a deterioration in the quality of fruiting. Excessive moisture in the soil during flowering is extremely harmful for pollination; flowers are shedding. Abundant watering during the ripening period leads to a thinning of the pulp, a decrease in the sugar content of the berry juice, and most importantly, leads to cracking of the berries! Such grapes are instantly chosen by sparrows, wasps and fungal diseases. As a result, you can lose from 50 to 100% of the crop! With excessive soil moisture, branching of the roots also stops, the growth and development of shoots are weakened, the size of clusters and berries decreases. The development of fungal diseases is facilitated by weak, drizzling rains. The city is just a natural disaster for the vineyard, it breaks the shoots, breaks the leaves and destroys the crop. In the case of damage to the bushes by hail, all affected shoots and other parts of the plant must be cut to provoke the growth of a new vine for next year's harvest.Grapes (Grapes)
Grapes are very plastic and can grow on soils on which other fruit and vegetable crops are not able to live (sands, rocky soils, etc.). The grape harvest and its quality, as well as the quality of the juice, largely depend on the type of soil. For table varieties this is not of fundamental importance, but for technical (wine) varieties it is very important. However, to think that a grape plant is not at all demanding on soils is wrong. Through the root system, water and mineral substances dissolved in it enter the aerial part from the soil, so the type of soil still pretty much affects the growth of the bushes, the quality of the crop, as well as the plant's resistance to adverse environmental conditions. This must always be remembered, especially when familiarizing yourself with the description of grape varieties. Most descriptions refer to varieties growing on soils of a particular area. When these varieties are transferred to another soil-climatic zone, changes can occur in the dimensional characteristics of clusters and berries, in the strength of the growth of the bush, in resistance to frost and disease. For almost all grape varieties, the most favorable are light sandy loamy soils. If on the site the soil is heavy, then gravel (small gravel - “seed”, not cobblestones), sand, humus must be added to the planting pit. The worst thing is if in a place intended for grapes, groundwater with a high concentration of salts lies closely. In the case of planting a vineyard on such soils, it is simply necessary to make drainage to drain groundwater. Wetlands for planting grapes are completely unsuitable.
Since summer cottages are usually small, grapes are most often planted near the walls of houses and other buildings. The walls of houses protect plants from cold air, grapes are less exposed to frost, vegetation in such conditions usually begins a few days earlier and ends a month later than in the "field" conditions. All this allows you to significantly expand the range of grape varieties for growing it in the northern latitudes and get a good harvest.
Now about the selection of varieties. It’s not worth it, flattering for advertising, to buy new (not tested) little-studied varieties and hybrid forms of grapes, you should not buy planting material from random sellers. As a rule, these people themselves are not engaged in the cultivation of grapes, they "just sell the goods." By purchasing planting material from such sellers, you risk then losing years and dooming yourself to extra material costs. In the vast majority of cases, after several years of waiting, it turns out that the variety does not meet either the requirements of the gardener or the assurances of the seller, and you will either have to uproot or re-grape the bush.Grapes (Grapes)
When choosing, preference should be given to proven varieties, which in local conditions are characterized by high and stable yields, good quality berries and bunches, preferably with increased disease resistance and winter hardiness. Modern selection of grapes, its achievements make it possible to choose exactly the assortment that would meet your requirements in all respects. If you plan to grow grapes in a place where no one has done this before, then you need to focus on very early and early ripening varieties of interspecific origin, with a short growing season, with good ripening of the vine and their obligatory shelter for the winter.
Keep in mind that varieties with a functionally female type of flower should be planted next to a bisexual plant that blooms at the same time. It is advisable (but not fundamentally important) to place the bushes in groups depending on the maturity.
Ideally, the rows of the vineyard should be located along the north-south line determined by the compass (this is very important!), On a site open all day for direct sunlight. But if this condition cannot be observed, then partial shading of landings is permissible for no more than 3-4 hours. It is better when the vine receives direct sunlight in the morning, and diffused in the evening.Grapes (Grapes)
The heat supply and heat saving of the vineyard should be given the most serious attention, especially where there is not enough heat. What can be recommended for this? Plant bushes near buildings or a fence. Set up a solid fence 2 m high on the north and (or) northeast side. This will reduce the cooling effect of the wind at a distance of 14-15 m from the fence. Plant bushes on the ridges. The ridge warms up faster - and the grape bush receives more heat. Keep the soil under black vapor. In spring, the soil under the bushes can be covered with a transparent film. Under a transparent film, the soil, protected from the wind, warms up faster and more during the day, and all the heat remains in the vineyard. When heat sets in, remove the transparent film.
To paint the posts and wire of the trellis in black, this also gives, albeit a small one, an increase in heat. Dig large stones in the vineyard. They will accumulate heat, and at night give it to the bushes. Cover the aisles with a layer of gravel.
Arrange reflective screens on the north or west side, as well as scatter on the ground. Water the plants with warm water.
You just need to keep in mind that in the north in the spring, soils, as a rule, already contain excess moisture, so you should worry about good drainage. The use of such "little tricks" ultimately leads to an increase in the amount of active temperatures during the growing season by 500 degrees or more.Grapes (Grapes)
- A. Dmitriev, Volgograd.
- S.Krasohina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking, Rostov Region, Novocherkassk