Anise vulgaris (Anisum vulgare) - Family Celery (Apiaceae)
An annual herbaceous plant. The root is rod, thin; stalk erect, finely furrowed, shortly pubescent, up to 50 cm tall. The lower leaves are whole, notched, serrated or lobed, the middle ones are triple. The flowers are small, white or cream, collected in complex umbrellas. The fruit is an ovoid, soft-hairy dvushemyka of a grayish-green color.Anise seeds
The homeland of anise is the Mediterranean country. In the Eastern Mediterranean, anise has been cultivated since ancient times. In India, he was already known in the V century. n e. He used ancient Chinese and medieval Arab medicine. Anise came to Western Europe thanks to the Romans. In the XII century. it began to be cultivated in Spain, in the XVII century. - in England.
Since 1830, anise was introduced into culture in Russia, where it was grown mainly in the former Voronezh province. Currently, the main areas of industrial cultivation of anise are concentrated in the Belgorod and partly in the Voronezh regions. Domestic varieties of anise - 'Alekseevsky 68', 'Alekseevsky 1231' and others.
Beneficial features. Anise contains from 1.5 to 4.0% of essential oil, which has a characteristic aroma and sweet taste. Anise fruits, as well as the essential oil obtained from them, are widely used in bakery, fish and meat industry, confectionery and distillery, soap making, perfumes, and medicine.Anise illustration
Anise has long been known as a medicinal plant. The Greeks and Romans used its fruits to arouse appetite. It is believed that the smell of anise causes a quiet sleep, therefore, its infusion is drunk with insomnia. Rub aniseed oil to protect against mosquito bites. In modern medicine, in particular in pediatrics, preparations from anise fruits are used for whooping cough, bronchitis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, tracheitis, laryngitis, as well as diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Young tender anise leaves are added to fruit and vegetable salads, especially beets and carrots, as well as side dishes. Unripe umbrellas are used for pickling cucumbers, zucchini, squash, fruits - for baking rolls, cookies, mats. Powder from fruits is added to milk and fruit soups, when cooking jam, jam from plums, apples, pears, in sweet and sour sauces, compotes, jelly.Common Anise, or Anise Thigh (Pimpinella anisum)
Agricultural technology. The most favorable for growing anise are chernozemic, fertile soils with a good structure, but it also grows well on loose loamy and loamy soils with a sufficient amount of humus and lime. Clay and saline soils are not suitable for growing anise. It is undesirable to place it in areas where coriander was grown.
Anise is propagated by seeds; it is recommended to germinate them before sowing. To do this, the seeds are abundantly moistened and kept under a film for three days. When germinating 3-5% of the seeds are dried to a loose state and sown. The depth of seed placement is 2-3 cm. Anise seedlings easily tolerate small spring frosts, so the seeds are sown in early spring, at the end of April. Anise seeds easily crumble, so the plants (in the phase of ripeness of fruits on the central umbrella) are cut at a height of 10 cm, tied into small bundles and left to ripen. The ripened fruits are threshed, dried and cleaned of possible impurities. On greens, anise is harvested before flowering.
Decorative. Openwork, strongly dissected, dark green leaves make anise decorative throughout the season. During flowering, delicate white or cream inflorescences adorn the plant. Anise looks good in group landings.Anise